Refrigerant, also known as refrigerant, is commonly known as snow in some areas of the South. It is a working substance that continuously circulates in a refrigeration system and undergoes its own state change to achieve refrigeration. The refrigerant absorbs heat in the evaporator by heat of a cooling medium (water or air, etc.), and transfers heat to the surrounding air or water in the condenser to condense.
The high pressure steam sterilizer sterilizes the articles to achieve sterility requirements, which is the basic guarantee for microbial experiments. Qualification of the autoclave sterilization is the most fundamental and critical first step in the success of the experiment. Except for a small amount of medium, which only needs to be heated and dissolved, and no autoclaving is required, most of the medium is autoclaved at 121 ° C for 15-30 minutes. In particular, the sterilization of the sterile test medium is not thorough and is directly related to the results of the sterility test on the sample. Therefore, the sterilization effect of the autoclave must be verified. To this end, we provide a simple and feasible method for verifying the effectiveness of sterilization.
The biological safety cabinet is an air purification equipment that provides a local dust-free and sterile working environment, and can artificially control the discharged air in the working area through a special filtering channel to avoid harm to people and the environment. Safe microbiological dedicated clean bench. It can also be applied to related industries such as biological laboratory, medical and health, bio-pharmaceutical, etc., and has good effects on improving process conditions and protecting the health of operators.
The principle of a freeze dryer is a technical method of preliminarily freezing an aqueous article and then sublimating its water under vacuum to obtain a dried article. The freeze-dried articles are easy to store for a long time, and can be restored to the state before lyophilization and retain the original biochemical characteristics after adding water.
Muffle furnace is a kind of equipment used for heating or heat treatment. Because of its advantages such as convenient use, accurate temperature control and fast heating, it is now in the production process of industrial and mining enterprises. In the chemical laboratory of the unit, the use of this furnace is essential, so if you buy a suitable muffle furnace?
The muffle furnace used in the industry is a professional mechanical device, and requires a professional method in the process of use. When you operate the muffle furnace, you need to understand the performance and usage of the muffle furnace and the problems that may arise during use. The muffle furnace can be used very well only when it is hot enough.
The spray dryer sprays the material into droplets and disperses it in hot air. The materials are in contact with the hot air in a cocurrent, countercurrent or mixed flow manner, so that the water evaporates quickly to achieve the purpose of drying. By means of spray drying, unit operations such as concentration, filtration, and pulverization can be omitted, and drying time is short, product fluidity and fast solubility are good, and thus it is widely used in medicine and other industries.
Biosafety cabinets are widely used in health care, disease prevention and control, food hygiene, biopharmaceuticals, environmental monitoring, and various biological laboratories. They are an important foundation for ensuring biosafety and environmental safety. Fume hoods and clean benches are not biosafety cabinets and should not be used in experiments or production processes involving microbial materials.
The distilled water is obtained by electrically heating tap water to obtain pure water. Steam is produced by heating distilled water and condensed into distilled water, which is suitable for use in pharmaceuticals, preparations, laboratories, laboratories, etc.
Laboratory centrifuges are instruments that use centrifugal force generated by a rotating rotor to separate substances of different densities and different particle sizes in a suspension or emulsion, or to perform analysis while separating. It has a wide range of applications and is suitable for use in laboratories such as chemical, food, pharmaceutical, environmental, mining, and teaching. But how to choose a suitable centrifuge should start from the following aspects:
The main uses of modern freeze-drying technology are: freeze-drying storage of in vitro biological tissues; freeze-drying preservation of live bacteria; lyophilization of Chinese herbal medicines, western medicines, biological drugs and blood products; freezing of convenience foods, health foods, functional foods Dry storage and transportation; lyophilization preparation of nano ceramic materials and various metal micropowder materials. Therefore, freeze-drying technology has been widely used in the fields of chemicals, food, materials, medicine, and biological products. Vacuum freeze dryer (referred to as freeze dryer) is a device for realizing freeze-drying technology. It is a complex structure machine involving refrigeration, vacuum, thermal, mechanical, fluid, electrical control and pressure vessels.
The cryogenic centrifuge is a product with a series of centrifuges. In general, for the maintenance of cryogenic low-speed centrifuges, we tend to follow the five principles: one rule, two comparison rules, substitution rules, exchange rules and reference conditions rules, among which:
Large-scale spray dryers are highly regarded by many companies because of their fast drying speed, good drying effect and continuous production process. However, as the use time increases and the relevant parameters are set incorrectly, the spray dryer will cause some problems in the production process. After more than ten years of experience in the company, we have listed some common problems and solutions:
The crude fiber measuring instrument is also called a fiber measuring instrument and a cellulose measuring instrument. The crude fiber analyzer is an apparatus for digesting a sample according to the currently used acid-base digestion method and performing weight measurement to obtain a crude fiber content of the sample. The crude fiber analyzer uses the acid and alkali with the correct concentration to digest the sample under certain conditions, and the amount of the mineral is deducted after burning at a high temperature, and the content is called crude fiber. It is not an exact chemical entity, but a summary of the ingredients measured under recognized mandatory conditions, with cellulose being predominant, with a small amount of hemicellulose and lignin.
In order to ensure the cleaning of the drying tower body and its piping and all parts in contact with the finished product, it is necessary to obtain a first-class product and regular cleaning equipment. When the product variety is changed, or if the spray drying equipment has been discontinued for more than 24 hours without being cleaned, a thorough and thorough cleaning should be carried out.
The glass reactor is limited to indoor use. The power lead protection grounding of the instrument is connected to the housing and the application part and must be reliably grounded through the power socket. The glass reactor should be equipped with a leakage protector when it is used in a place where it may be wet. When operating the instrument, be careful to keep the operating surface clean and avoid hard objects from hitting the glass instrument to avoid damage to the instrument. Use a neutral cleaning solution to clean the surface of the instrument. Do not use any solvent-based liquids. Maintaining a good working environment and avoiding inadvertent mishandling is an important part of maintaining good performance and prolonging the service life of the glass reactor.
For the separation effect of the centrifuge, we often consider the type of centrifuge, centrifugation method, centrifugal medium and other factors, but in actual operation, in addition to these points, the centrifuge speed and centrifugation time, as well as the pH and temperature of the centrifugal medium, etc. It is also very important.
The centrifugal rotor is the core component of the centrifuge. All systems in the centrifuge are configured to ensure that the rotor operates safely under certain conditions. The rotor not only directly affects the separation effect, it is also the main force component in the centrifuge technology, which is extremely important for the safety of the centrifuge. What are the contents of the service life of several commonly used centrifuge rotors? What are the problems with the service life of several commonly used centrifuge rotors?
How to choose a centrifuge, the ordinary centrifuge only needs to choose according to the size of the workload, from the two aspects of speed and capacity. We should consider the following five aspects from the following aspects:
The quality of the element lamp selected by the atomic absorption spectrometer directly affects the sensitivity of the measurement and the linearity of the standard curve. Some of the lamp backgrounds are too large to be used normally. The lamp emits a trace of hydrogen in the lamp during use, and the light emitted by the hydrogen is a continuous spectrum, which can be called the background emission of the lamp.
Atomic absorption spectrometers are precision special equipment that requires regular commissioning and maintenance. According to the operation regulations and precautions, combined with practical experience, several methods of instrument debugging, instrument maintenance and maintenance during the use of atomic absorption spectrometer are discussed, so that the instrument analysis can achieve the best results at any time.
The low speed centrifuge is a special equipment for rapid separation and precipitation of mixed solutions. It can be widely used in hospitals, food, industry, scientific research and other units for laboratory tests, biochemical tests, separation of suspensions, etc.
In the process of using a medical centrifuge, it is easy to operate normally because the centrifuge rotor is unbalanced, or because of an accident such as a broken shaft caused by an unbalanced state, today, the cause of the imbalance of the rotor of the medical centrifuge is analyzed.
Centrifugal separation technology has also undergone several generations of replacement, from medical centrifuges, low-speed refrigerated centrifuges, high-speed centrifuges to high-speed refrigerated centrifuges, ultra-large capacity refrigerated centrifuges, ultracentrifuges, ultra-speed refrigerated centrifuges, and intelligent high-speed refrigerated centrifuges. We have summarized the common problems in the use of centrifuges and hope to help you in the future.
In the process of using sterilization equipment, users know that they should pay attention to many precautions. After the items are sterilized, many people may feel that they have already handled them, and they are not careful. After the equipment is finished sterilization, it is not known. We also have to pay some attention. Next, we will introduce you to what we need to pay attention to after the autoclave steam sterilizer. Through our introduction, I hope everyone can gain something.
Autoclaves steam sterilizer are common sterilization equipment, generally divided into portable sterilizers and vertical sterilizers, which are heated by heating wire. When heated to a certain temperature, water will become water vapor. The temperature can reach more than 100 degrees. In addition to increasing the temperature, it can also be boosted. At the same time, it can be kept warm and kept pressure. Therefore, it is widely used in biological companies, hospitals and food fields, mainly for disinfecting utensils and clothes.
The use of steam sterilizer is a technical activity. Generally speaking, how to use it in the course of the university, how to maintain it, etc., and in our work, it is a very common equipment, so how to use it is also good to learn how to use it. A technology is absolutely useful. By learning and understanding, it will be easier to work in the future. How to use steam sterilizer? How to maintain it?
Our company summarized the common faults of the operators using the muffle furnace through the return visit. When you encounter the following problems, you should calmly deal with them. Don't be sloppy, otherwise the muffle furnace may not be used.
When using high-temperature box type resistance furnace, we must pay attention to the operation specifications. If we do not pay attention to the operation details for a long time, it may affect the service life of the resistance furnace. Only the standard use can make the various parts of the resistance furnace operate efficiently, neat and durable.
Through regular visits to customers, we have found through statistical analysis that many customers often ignore some small details when using ceramic fiber box furnaces. Although there is no big impact at present, it will always affect the life of equipment. Here are a few of the details of the regular parts:
The muffle furnace is a universal heating device. Usually called box furnace. Muffle furnace is a cycle operation type, which is used for laboratory analysis, industrial and mining enterprises, scientific research units for elemental analysis and determination, and general small steel parts for quenching, annealing, tempering and other heat treatment. High temperature muffle furnace can also be used for sintering of metal and ceramics. , high temperature heating for dissolution, analysis, etc.
Tablet friability test refers to the percentage loss of weight after the tablet rolls 100 times in the cylinder of the specified friability tester. It is used to check the friability of the uncoated tablet and its physical strength, such as pressure. Broken strength, etc.
The friability tester is used to check the friability of non-coated tablets and other physical strengths such as crush strength. Fragility means that the tablet is susceptible to chipping, cracking, cracking, etc. after being subjected to vibration or rubbing. The friability of the tablet reflects the anti-wear and vibration resistance of the tablet and is also an important item for the inspection of the quality standard of the tablet.
In the food industry, spray drying equipment not only allows food to maintain a good appearance and original nutritional value, but also produces coffee mate, egg yolk powder, milk powder, soup, juice powder and other products, but also has large power consumption and excessive volume. It is prone to sticking wall phenomenon and large-time investment. In the case of national environmental protection and people's demand for food, spray drying equipment needs to maintain its position in the food industry.
The freeze dryer is mainly a machine consisting of a refrigeration system combined with a vacuum system and a heating system including an electrical control system. Since it is freeze-dried, there will definitely be a dry box and a refrigeration unit. There are of course some other components. In fact, there are many ways to dry, such as drying, drying or vacuum drying.
The drug dissolution rate refers to the rate and extent to which the drug is dissolved from a solid preparation such as a tablet in a prescribed solvent. It is an indicator for evaluating the quality of oral solid preparations of drugs, and is an in vitro simple test method for simulating disintegration and dissolution of oral solid preparations in the gastrointestinal tract.
A complete rotary evaporator was combined with a rotary evaporator condenser and motor, water bath, distillation flask, collection flask and other accessories. Each part of the rotary steaming plays its own role, and the role of the rotary evaporator condenser tube is a top priority.
Before buying a rotary evaporator, you need to consider four issues.First, what is the amount of distillation of the rotary evaporator? Second, what is the expected distillation solvent? What is the boiling point of the solvent? 4. What is the number of samples that need to be distilled?
Many people do not pay enough attention to some of the equipment's precautions in the process of using the horizontal steam sterilizer. It is considered that there is no need to comply with so many uses. In fact, this is wrong. We are using a horizontal steam sterilizer. In the process of the long-term failure to pay attention to the use of some equipment for a long time, the horizontal steam sterilizer will frequently have some problems. Here are some tips for using the horizontal steam sterilizer:
With the continuous development of China's pharmaceutical industry in recent years, the application of medical centrifuges has become more and more extensive. We can see it in the laboratory and laboratory of the hospital. The main function is to scatter the particles in the solution. Separation and separation of liquids that are incompatible with each other at two different densities.
Medical centrifuges are widely used in medical research or hospital testing. Now more centrifuges are used in hospitals, such as high-speed centrifuges, blood centrifuges, blood card centrifuges, urine sediment centrifuges, capillary centrifuges, and cytocentrifugation. Machines, biopharmaceutical centrifuges, gel bubble processing centrifuges, etc., have a wide variety of functions, and their functions are not the same.
When using a high speed centrifuge, it must be operated from a safety point of view, and it is necessary to proceed from its principle. Here is a detailed introduction to the maintenance of the state of operation of the high speed centrifuge, which can help you to use the high speed centrifuge correctly.
In the process of operating the desktop high-capacity centrifuge, the anti-corrosion problem must first pay attention to, the corrosion of the equipment is easy to cause the equipment to malfunction, or the corroded things enter the inside of the equipment, which has an impact on the experimental results. Here are three ways to prevent corrosion from benchtop large capacity centrifuges:
Centrifugal separation technology has also undergone several generations of replacement, from medical centrifuges, low-speed refrigerated centrifuges, high-speed centrifuges to high-speed refrigerated centrifuges, ultra-large capacity refrigerated centrifuges, ultracentrifuges, ultra-speed refrigerated centrifuges, and intelligent high-speed refrigerated centrifuges.But what problems should you pay attention to when using the centrifuge daily? Please see the following instructions:
Centrifuge is an indispensable instrument in biological experiments. It seems to be a universal instrument, but it has a lot of knowledge. In the experimental operation, we need to understand the knowledge of the centrifuge and use it reasonably to serve our experiment more stably.
The study found that although some marine fish can synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids such as DHA and EPA, the DHA accumulated in their body is mainly derived from their food. The primary producer of marine food, the marine microbe, is the original producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
The glass reactor mainly utilizes the characteristics of its double-layer glass. We can place the reaction materials in the middle interlayer and carry out the stirring reaction under normal pressure or negative pressure. The glass reactor is injected into the thermostat through the double-layer reactor. The hot solution or the cooling liquid is heated or cooled at a constant temperature in the reactor, and stirring can be provided. Thus, the medium in the interlayer of the glass reactor is subjected to a cyclic reaction by stirring to achieve heating or cooling. It is widely used as an ideal equipment in modern biochemical new material synthesis experiments.
As we all know, the pharmaceutical profession is different from the general production profession, and the requirements in all aspects are relatively more stringent. Regarding the production enterprises, the selected production equipment and so on must also satisfy many specifications and requirements. In the process of producing pharmaceuticals, it is often demanding boring, and now the drug is dry and can use a special spray dryer to achieve a good effect.
According to the different methods of cold air discharge, the pressure steam sterilizer is divided into two types: the lower exhaust type pressure steam sterilizer and the pre-vacuum pressure steam sterilizer.
Spray dryer technology has been used in industrial production for a long time, but there are still many problems, which directly affect the quality of the product. Targeted testing and design is an important part of the characteristics of different feedstock fluids. When there is no accurate mathematical model to confirm, the test is still the best way to solve these problems.
Vacuum freeze-drying technology is a high-tech dehydration technology that protects color, keeps freshness and maintains quality. In recent years, the consumption of freeze-dried food in Europe, America and Japan has increased rapidly, and for a long time, China's agricultural and livestock products have been exporting. The raw material or primary processing stage gives a general feeling of low technical content. By developing freeze-dried vegetables and meat, it will improve the grade of China's export food and obtain higher added value.
The design of the freeze-drying machine automatic control system requires simple operation, starting from the material into the button, quick-freezing vacuum sublimation and drying in one go, prompting the shutdown after the freeze-drying is completed. Relevant temperature and pressure control points should be carefully selected and properly controlled. The correlation between quick freezing, vacuum holding and heating should be properly controlled, and the process curve should be set for different materials.
Fully automatic autoclave is widely used in medical and health care, agriculture and scientific research. It is the most ideal equipment for the comprehensive sterilization and sterilization of medical equipment glassware and automatic autoclave.
The thermal method is a method of sterilizing using high pressure steam or high temperature water in an autoclave. Due to the microbial environment in the hot and humid environment, some important proteins are denatured and solidified, which will cause the microorganisms to die, thus achieving the purpose of sterilization.
In the freeze dryer, the pre-cooler is not only the refrigeration recovery device of the refrigeration system, but also the low-temperature air regenerator after dehydration. It is a major component of the freeze dryer and is a characteristic condition that distinguishes the freeze dryer from other refrigeration equipment.
The steam sterilizer is an steam sterilizer device, which belongs to a pressure vessel and is commonly used for sterilization of glassware. The general pressure reaches 0.15 kPa, and the temperature is maintained at about 120 degrees for half an hour. From heating, heat preservation and cooling. It takes two or three hours. Steam sterilizer are very common sterilization equipment. As long as they are used in microorganisms, they are basically used. They are very convenient, safe, efficient, and inexpensive. Therefore, they are widely used. There are some issues to be aware of.
Before using the spray dryer, the staff needs to complete the relevant preparations in advance. First of all, the material to be sprayed is thoroughly emulsified and homogenized by a homogenizer and passed through an 80 mesh screen. This is to avoid the occurrence of atomizers and pipeline blockage in the later stage. And these materials should be placed in stainless steel buckets for use. In addition, a bucket of tap water is used to clean the atomizer and spray chamber of the spray dryer.
The automatic control of the small spray dryer can reduce the labor intensity of the operator, reduce the number of operators, reduce the operating cost, and improve the quality of the drug after baking.
The freeze dryer consists of a refrigeration system, a vacuum system, a heating system, and an electrical instrument control system. The main components are drying ovens, condensers, refrigeration units, vacuum pumps, heating/cooling devices, etc. It works by freezing the dried item below the triple point temperature and then sublimating the solid water (ice) in the item to water vapor under vacuum conditions, removing it from the item and drying the item.
It is well known that when using the freeze dryer for the first time, we must thoroughly clean all parts of the dryer. Everyone knows that stainless steel parts are cleaned with ethanol, and plexiglass is washed with normal saline. Ampoules are cleaned with an ultrasonic cleaner, but what preparations do we need to make before actually operating the freeze dryer?
The freeze-dried food of the freeze dryer machine has gradually entered our daily life because of its good preservation, good nutrition, easy to carry and easy storage. So, which foods can be lyophilized?
Freeze drying of a vacuum freeze dryer refers to the process of removing moisture or other solvent from a frozen biological product by sublimation. Sublimation refers to the process of solvents, such as water, like dry ice, which does not pass through a liquid state and changes from a solid to a gaseous state.
The rotary evaporator is an experimental equipment for rectification and purification in the laboratory. It is heated by constant temperature and rotated under reduced pressure (negative pressure) to form a film to continuously evaporate a large amount of volatile solvent, evaporate efficiently, and then condense and recover the solvent. The effect of purifying the separation, that is, under reduced pressure, the distillation flask is continuously rotated as the solvent is distilled.
Rotary evaporators are primarily used to continuously distill large amounts of volatile solvents under reduced pressure. In particular, the concentration of the extract and the distillation of the receiving liquid in the chromatographic separation can separate and purify the reaction product.
The rotary evaporator is an evaporation instrument widely used in laboratories. Suitable for reflow operation, rapid evaporation of a large amount of solvent, concentration of trace components and reaction process requiring agitation. Zhengzhou Laboao Instruement Equipment CO., LTD. specially arranged the rotary evaporator operation steps, hoping to help everyone.
The reaction medium can be stirred in the inner layer of the glass reactor, and the interlayer can be circulated through a cold heat source (refrigerant, water, heat transfer oil) to achieve constant temperature heating or cooling reaction, and the distillation and reflux of the reaction medium can be controlled. The glass reactor is an ideal test and production equipment for the preparation of modern synthetic chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and new materials.
Single-layer glass reactors are used in the field of ideal testing and production equipment for modern synthetic chemicals and biopharmaceuticals and their new materials. Therefore, learning more knowledge and skills as a high-tech product can help to play the role of the reactor. Serve us more industry needs, how to do it?
The jacketed glass reactor is designed as jacketed glass, and the inner layer is placed in the reaction medium for stirring reaction, and the interlayer can be heated or cooled by using different cold and heat sources (refrigerant, hot water or hot oil). Under constant temperature conditions.